The schoolchildren of Oceana, West Virginia in 1910. If you enlarge this pic, you can see black dots I put on 4 of the children. They are my mother's sister and three brothers. Mom was only 2 when this pic was taken.
My mother's father was the principal and head teacher at this one-room school. Mom used to tell me stories of how she talked all the time in school, and her dad could flip a piece of chalk and hit her square on the nose. Once she was bent down, acting like she had to pick something up off the floor, but she was really talking to the girl in front of her. Grandpa called her name, and as she straightened up, he flipped the chalk and hit her on the nose. She said she thought her nose was broken, but it wasn't. I guess it hurt her more than usual because she didn't expect it.
She told me he did this nearly everyday for at least one school year, until she learned not to talk. She had a bump on her nose because of it; I'd call it abuse nowadays, but I guess he could get away with it back then. Of course, he never did it to any kids except his own.